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DIS PhD P79 L37 1988 (COL)
The psycho-philosophical orientation and structure of selected preschools in Metro Manila
by Lapus, Ma. Rosario Oreta, 1943-
xiv, 252 leaves ; 28 cm.

©1988 Published by The Author
Dissertation (Doctor of Philosophy in Education) -- University of the Philippines, Diliman, 1988.
ABSTRACT:  Early childhood education in the Philippines today, as in many other countries, is considered one of the most rapidly expanding fields in education and psychology. Unhappily there is a paucity of research on preschools, largely limited to an assessment of children's academic gains on the presumption that this demonstrates program effectiveness. With little previous empirical research as guide, this study has sought to analyze and compare the nature of theoretically different educational approaches to preschool education. There were two dimensions of analysis used in this study: the quantitative and the qualitative. The first phase of the study was composed of a survey which served mainly to give a holistic perspective on the different preschools operating in the metro manila area. Baseline data were gathered to find out the characteristics of preschools, where the schools were located in the psycho-philosophical continuum with regards to school orientation, and how public and private preschools differed in their orientations. A three-part questionnaire was constructed for this - part I: 40 statements on the teaching-learning process; part II: broad purposes and goals of preschool education; and part III: value stories. For part I (40 statements) the independent t-test was employed to find out if there were significant differences in the total orientation of public and private preschools. Further analysis was done to find out which specific program dimensions accounted for these differences. Results showed that public preschools differed from the private in their philosophy, psychological beliefs, in organizations of time, space and materials, in curriculum aspects and in evaluation purposes and procedures. However, no significant differences were found in social interaction patterns, i.e., how the teachers and children interacted in their classrooms. In part @ of the questionnaire (broad statements of purposes and goals of preschools) no significant differences were found in public and private sector responses. In their value choices, the public sector ranked socialization as the primary value while the private sector overwhelmingly chose individuality as the most desirable. Phase II of the study dealt with schools on the micro level in which these orientations operate. It involved a case study of five preschools purposely chosen from the survey subjects above. Two preschools with a behaviorist orientation, two preschools with a humanist orientation and one Montessori school were chosen as subjects for qualitative data analysis. The following question was addressed: at the program implementation level, in what manner and to what extent do the teachers and their classrooms reflect the psycho-philosophical beliefs of these schools. The variables analyzed were the following major components of a program: organization of time, organization of space, organization of materials, social interaction patterns, curriculum aspects, and evaluation purposes and procedures. In order to achieve this, evaluative information was gathered through the participant observation method, by examining the existing documents of the case study schools (school bulletins, progress reports, curricular presentations), by interviewing the teachers, through a time sample of classroom activities and various checklists and aids to the observation procedure. Results showed that the case study schools to a great extent conformed to expectations in the way the teachers in their classrooms operationalized the philosophy of their schools. In their organization of time, space, materials, in matters relating to curriculum and it their evaluation purposes and procedures, schools remained basically true to their philosophy. In the dimension of social interaction patterns, findings were equivocal. When interacting with students in an informal capacity, there was no difference in teacher attitude and behavior. At the formal level, during lessons, teacher behavior and attitude were qualitatively different. The behaviorist classrooms were more authority-oriented and task oriented. The humanist classrooms exhibited less controlling behavior on the part of the teachers and children were given more chances to indulge in less work oriented activities. They interacted with the children on a more egalitarian basis. Greater child-child interaction at different levels was also noted in the latter classrooms. These seem to support the results of earlier quantitative analysis. Accommodation in this dimension was present. The Montessori classroom was found to be high in structure although control lay mainly in the materials and method. Although consistency was found in the way the classrooms implemented their philosophy, the two humanist classrooms had their own distinct personalities and had certain differences which distinguished one from the other. The two behaviorist classrooms, on the other hand, resembled each other to a remarkable extent. In sum, metro manila preschools vary a great deal in their theoretical orientation and in the actual implementation of this orientation. It is to be hoped that this diversity of form and setting remain because children and families vary according to needs and desires. It is recommended that schools, however, take definite steps to inculcate in their teachers the major beliefs the schools hold with regard to children and their schooling so that these teachers can operate on their beliefs with knowledge and conviction. It is further recommended that continuous self-evaluation be performed by preschools so they can effectively determine whether their objectives are being met. The program dimensions identified in this study: organization of time, space, materials, social interaction patterns, curriculum aspects and evaluation purposes and procedures are helpful categories to look at in determining internal program consistency. This study was exploratory in nature. It is to be hoped that it will pave the way for future qualitative and program analysis researchers in the field of early childhood education in the Philippines.
Book ID 1000083411
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